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Romania Government


The Constitution of Romania is based on the Constitution of France's Fifth Republic and was approved in a national referendum on December 8, 1991. A plebiscite held in October 2003 approved 79 amendments to the Constitution, bringing it into conformity with European Union legislation. Romania is governed on the basis of multi-party democratic system and of the segregation of the legislative, executive and judicial powers. Romania is a semi-presidential democratic republic where executive functions are shared between the president and the prime minister. While the president resides at Cotroceni Palace, the prime minister with the Romanian Government is based at Victoria Palace.

The president is elected by popular vote for a maximum of two 5-year terms (4-year terms until 2004). He/she is head of state (charged with safeguarding the constitution, foreign affairs, and the proper functioning of public authorities), supreme commander of the Armed Forces and chairman of the Supreme Council of National Defense. According to the constitution, he/she acts as mediator among the power centers within the state, as well as between the state and society. The president nominates the prime minister, following consultations with the party that holds the majority in the Parliament. If none of the parties hold an absolute majority, the president chooses the prime minister following consultations with all the parties represented in the parliament. The nominated prime minister chooses the other members of the government and then the government and its program must be confirmed by a vote of confidence from Parliament.

The national legislature is a bicameral Parliament (Parlament), consisting of the Chamber of Deputies (Camera Deputaţilor) and the Senate (Senat). Members are elected for 4-year terms by universal suffrage under party list proportional representation electoral systems.

The number of senators and deputies has varied in each legislature, reflecting the variation in population. As of 2004, there are 137 senatorial seats and 332 seats in the Chamber of Deputies; of the 332 deputy seats, 314 are elected, and 18 are reserved for ethnic minorities not otherwise represented in the Parliament.

The Romanian legal system is based on the Napoleonic Code. The judiciary is to be independent, and judges appointed by the president are not removable. The president and other judges of the Supreme Court are appointed for a term of 6 years and may serve consecutive terms. Proceedings are public, except in special circumstances provided for by law. The judicial power belongs to a hierarchical system of courts culminating with the supreme court – Înalta Curte de Justiţie şi Casaţie (The High Court of Justice and Cassation). The Romanian judicial system is an inquisitorial system, with a strong French influence.

The Curtea Constituţională (The Constitutional Court) judges issues of constitutionality when invoked in any judicial court and judges the compliance of laws or other state regulations to the Romanian Constitution, if these are brought before it. It follows the tradition of the French Constitutional Council in requiring 9 judges to hold a 9-year, non-renewable term. Following the 2003 revision of the Constitution, its decisions cannot be overturned by any majority of the Parliament.

The High Court of Cassation and Justice is the highest judicial authority. Its judges are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Superior Council of Magistrates.


Country name :
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Romania
local long form: none
local short form: Romania

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